Showing posts with label Cancer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cancer. Show all posts

Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Healthy Lifestyle to Prevent Cancer

Healthy Lifestyle to Prevent Cancer

Healthy lifestyle to prevent cancer. The cancer is often known by the community as the tumor, whereas not all tumors are cancer. Tumor is any abnormal lumps or abnormal. Tumors are divided into two groups, namely the benign tumor and malignant tumor. Cancer is a generic term for all types of malignant tumors.

Symptoms of the disease of cancer of all kinds, if you experience any of the symptoms of some of the course; it could be that there is a need to be changed from your lifestyle.

Cancer often recently detected after entering an advanced stage. In fact, there are several things that can be done so that the symptoms of the disease of cancer can be known and prevented early.

According to Graham Colditz, associate director for prevention and control of the Siteman Cancer Center at Washington University; maintain a healthy weight and good nutrition can be the best way to avoid cancer (mensjournal.com, April 14, 2015).

A report year 2009 of Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research found that about one-third of the causes of cancer may be associated with a poor diet and lack of physical activity.

Referring to the report, Colditz said that maintaining a healthy weight and diet more consume plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (nuts) can lower the risk of some cancers the most common.

But keep in mind, according to Dr. David Phillips from the Institute of Cancer Research, nuts, cereals or spices are stored in humid temperatures should not be consumed because it could cause the mushroom type fungus aflatoxin i.e. that could potentially increase the risk of liver cancer (dailymail.co.uk, April 18, 2015)

Further Colditz warns of danger of smoking that may cause any type of cancer, particularly lung. In the United States (US), lung cancer is the deadliest disease in which 90% of cases in men is caused by the habit of smoking.

Likewise with alcohol. Moreover, for those who have a bad habit of consuming alcohol and cigarettes simultaneously? According to Colditz, the content of ethanol in alcohol will ease the chemicals in tobacco enters the blood cells, making it difficult for DNA to repair the damage himself.

To get more definitive hints about healthy lifestyles that can prevent cancer, you can consult Your doctor or a health professional.

Spread this article "Healthy Lifestyle to Prevent Cancer" to your relationships through social networking features. And, share the experience of healthy living what you run in order to prevent the appearance of disease symptoms of certain cancers in the column below.


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Sunday, September 16, 2018

Tumors Oral Cavity : How to Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevent

Oral Cavity Cancer


Tumors Oral Cavity

Carcinoma of the oral cavity is a group of cancers called head and neck cancer. Cancer of the oral cavity can develop in various places in the oral cavity or oropharynx. Most carcinomas of the oral cavity start from the base of the tongue and mouth. Almost all carcinomas of the oral cavity start of flat cells (cell squamous) that coat the surface of the mouth, tongue and lips. This cancer called squamous cell carcinoma.

Carcinoma of the oral cavity is usually spread through the lymphatic system. Cancer cells usually appear initially in the lymph nodes of the neck. Cancer cells can also spread to other places on the neck, lungs, and other places throughout the body. When this happens, the new tumor is the same type of abnormal cells such as in the primary tumor.

Carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the diseases can be detected early. It is caused by its own can be seen every day as well as by others, either intentionally or unintentionally, for example when doing a toothbrush will spontaneously can be seen the presence of abnormalities in the cavity the mouth. Abnormalities in the oral cavity can also be viewed by others while it is performing a dental examination nor was talking with other people. Other things that can potentially find the presence of tumors in the oral cavity can be seen from a disorder of movement of the tongue when speaking and so forth.

It is important to find a carcinoma of the oral cavity is premature, because thus more treatment success is assured. Researchers are trying to probe these further diseases to share information so that the public knows about Carcinoma of the oral cavity. With the examination-an examination of the simple as screening for Carcinoma of the oral cavity to find then it should have been the genesis of the oral cavity Carcinoma can be reduced and its treatment can be more successful.

Epidemiology

Carcinoma of the oral cavity was found roughly around ⅔ occurs in the mouth and pharynx ⅓ found in. In the United States each year, about 29,000 people realize it has contracted cancer of the oral cavity (the mouth and lips) or oropharynx. This cancer is diagnosed in approximately 30,000 Americans (this year) and caused more than 8,000 deaths. The disease has killed nearly 1 person every hour. Cancer of the oral cavity ranks 6th for types of cancer that is often inflicted on men and no. 14 on the woman. Carcinoma of the oral cavity is spreading quickly. On average, only half (59%) are diagnosed with this disease can survive more than 5 years. Oral cavity cancers often occur at the age above 40 years old and affect more men than women. Vaamonde (2004) found that of 636 people patients suffering from head and neck cancer, 48 people or 7.5% develop secondary lesions.

Risk Factors

Tobacco/Alcohol Consumption; The use of tobacco and excessive Alcohol will increase the risk of cancer of the oral cavity. Cigarette smokers, cigars, pipe tobacco, snuff tobacco, tobacco chewers are those associated with the risk of Carcinoma of the oral cavity. In some tribes, tobacco is the need to run a cultural ritual or habit. For example on Indian tribes who perform the ritual of Sucking Pipe of peace to relieve tribal warfare. Likewise there are tribes in Indonesia Batak (Toba, Batak Simalungun, Nias) chewing tobacco (menyirih or suntil) has become a habit. For people who consume alcohol will increase the risk of developing cancer is with increasing amounts of alcohol consumed. The use of tobacco and alcohol at the same time increases the risk of more than one usage; even three of the four incidents of cancer of the oral cavity appear in people who consume tobacco, alcohol, or both.

Light From the Sun; Sun exposure is a risk factor for cancer of the lips, and even a smoker would be more prone to carcinomas. Using CAP, lip balm or lotion containing ultra violet protective will reduce or protect the lips from the risk of cancer of the lip.

Age; Carcinoma of the oral cavity is a disease typical in people with older age, usually because of the length of exposure to risk factors affected. Figures for the incidence of Carcinoma of the oral cavity increases with age, reaching the largest number at the age of 65-74 years. In Africa-American people, most events numbers at the age of about 10 years younger.

Gender; Carcinoma of the oral cavity about male 2 times more often than women.

Research shows that people who have risk factors such as above have greater possibilities to develop into Carcinoma of the oral cavity. Most cancers of the oral cavity can be prevented. 75% of this cancer is associated with use of tobacco, alcohol, or both simultaneously. Avoiding risk factors and factors coupled with eating more healthy foods like vegetables, fruits containing high in fiber will reduce the risk of cancer.

The table below is a risk factor data against cancer:

Risk Factor

Percentage

Tobacco

30%

Diet / Obesity

30%

Habits/Patterns of life

5%

Factor obtained

5%

Family Cancer History

5%

Viruses/biological

5%

Perinatal Factor

5%

Reproductive

3%

Alcohol

3%

Socioeconomic Status

3%

Environmental pollution

2%

Ionizing/UV radiation

2%

Other

2%



Symptoms

The symptoms that often appear on cancer of the oral cavity is the membranes in the mouth or lips are colored white, red or both (color change on the network of the mouth); Pain in the lips or mouth which bleeds easily and does not heal; teeth date; Difficulty or pain when chewing or swallowing; Trouble talking or moving the jaw or tongue; Difficulty or discomfort when Moor teeth (wearing false teeth); Swelling in the neck; pain in the ear, and so forth.

Pathology

Macroscopic. Note the presence of the preliminary signs that usually initiate the occurrence of cancer of the oral cavity that can look out for. Oral cancer is often preceded by a form of lesions are small, white or red spots that are often not aware of its existence or stung in the mouth. Such circumstances may occur throughout the area of the oral cavity including the lips, gums, cheek, tongue, inside and the ceiling (palate). Lesions that maybe a sign of cancer of the oral cavity. There are two lesions that can be precursors to cancer of the oral cavity, i.e. Leukoplakia (white lesions) and erythroplakia (red lesions). Although more rare lesions erythroplakia than leukoplakia, erythroplakia component containing the lesion has a greater potential for continued into cancer. All lesions, either white or red that does not improve within two weeks should be re-evaluated and considered for action biopsy to determine the Diagnosis of definitive. Other lesions may be the signs and symptoms. Signs and symptoms of Carcinoma of the oral cavity which usually includes: patient complained of the presence of a lump or thickening of the tissues of the mouth, pain or feeling like something stuck in throat, difficulty chewing or swallowing, ear pain, It's hard moving the jaw or tongue, hoarse, numbing on tongue or other parts of the mouth. If problems like this settled more than two weeks, then the necessary clinical and laboratory examination. If a diagnosis cannot be enforced, should patients referred to a specialist who is more appropriate.

Microscopic / Histopathology. The description of the histopathology varies greatly, ranging from hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia up on the State of atrophy and severe dysplasia. Patients with idiopathic leukoplakia have a higher risk to develop into cancer. From the research that there is a 4-17% of patients such as the malignant transformation of the incident found the lesion leukoplakia in less than 20 years later. Lesions in the oral cavity will develop into malignant lesions on areas likely 5 times greater in patients with leukoplakia than in patients without leukoplakia. Atrophic Mucosa is the initial conditions of pre Cancer lesions in the oral cavity where the epithelial cells and mucous tissue undergoes atrophy. Hiperplastik: mucosa epithelial cells in the mucosa of the oral cavity are having hyperplasia. Leukoplakia, usually asymptomatic and are discovered by accident while performing a routine dental examination. Leukoplakia can occur throughout the area of the oral cavity, though most often is in the buccal mucosa, the base of the mouth, tongue and palate the ventral part of the gingival. The appearance of leukoplakia is whitish plaques are solitary or multiple with an assertive edge. Leukoplakia can be slightly thickened and slippery or frown-shaped and fisur, may also appear with such plaques form veruka. Leukoplakia cannot be removed by using a swab. Eritroplakia, picture histologik Erythroplakia is epidermal thickening; almost 90% of the epidermal surface erosion is with dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or already happened around the carcinoma growth margins of erythroplakia. Redness in lesions is a result of the reaction of subepitel with inflammation in the vascular dilation. The size of the lesion does not seem to be a relevance, i.e. even a very small dysplasia lesions can be a multiple carcinomas and fatal.

Dysplasia. Displastik lesions are not showing the specific clinical picture, however if accompanied by a erythroplakia, then the picture is like a dysplasia. 17-25% biopsy sample of leukoplakia is a proven dysplasia. Verrucous Leukoplakia, Erythroplakia, Leukoplakia and Nodular showed an increase in the frequency of changes of histology dysplasia. Leukoplakia as above, or a erythroplakia, is usually a displastik or carcinoma. Most idiopathic Leukoplakia is homogeneous and very little that shows berubahan histology dysplasia. Nodular Leukoplakia or Verrucous lesions is not homogeneous, but homogeneous leukoplakia doesn't show potential malignant. However, the study found heavy dysplasia or carcinoma shows of leukoplakia specimens originating from excision almost 5% when diagnosis specimens originating from the biopsy showed an absence of dysplasia. In Situ Carcinoma is a term used in the controversial if a severe Dysplasia in which abnormal area extending past the thickness of the epithelium. The entire abnormal cellular characteristics of the malignant state can appear; It's just an invasion of connective tissue is not found. Starting from top to bottom, as in dysplasia epithel lesions-lesions Dysplasia of the other, did not have a characteristic clinical picture, although erythroplakia Carcinoma proved to be in Situ or an Early Invasion Carcinoma. Squamous Cell Carcinoma is 95% type of carcinoma in HNSCC (Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma). Tumor Odontogenic, is a group of complex lesions by clinical and histological picture is very different. Some indeed a neoplasm (benign and malignant), but partly resembles the hematoma. Odontogenic tumor derived from epithelial odontogenic, ectomesnchyme, or from both. This type of tumor odontogenic the most frequently encountered is Ameloblastoma: derived from the epithelium of the odontogenik; Odontoma, derived from the epithelium but occupying positions in email and dentin. Odontomas hematoma is more of a than a neoplasm and can be cured by local excision.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is done by doing a physical examination that is seeing signs in the mouth or throat leukoplakia or erythroplakia existence, bumps, or other problems. The examination started from the base of the back of the throat, mouth and the inside of the cheeks and lips. Then conducted an examination of the tongue with interesting tongue carefully and proceed with an examination of the lymph nodes in the neck. On examination of the abnormal area is found, and then the Biopsy is done to ensure that suspected area. Determination of the structure and cytology is the Gold Standard in finding the presence of abnormality in the oral cavity. Endoscopy is also done to browse there whether or not the spread of cancer to other place.

Scanning can be done are: dental x-ray and chest CT scan, MRI, The examination conducted under this is an abstract of a standard inspection method which is already recommended by the WHO. Method of inspection is also done by the Center for disease control and prevention's National Health Agency. The tools used are: adequate light (a flashlight), the glass mouth, 2 pieces size gauze 2 x 2 ", and gloves. This examination is not more than 5 minutes. The patient is prepared by releasing first if any protease on the mouth (e.g., false teeth, braces, and so on), and then the patient is seated in a comfortable position.

Examination of Intra Oral and Perioral Tissues

The procedure is done is a systematic assessment of the 7 steps of the labial mucosa, lip and sulcus, mucosa and buccal commissural, sulcus, the alveolar and ginggiva, the base of the tongue, mouth, and palate. Lips: examination begins by observing the patient's mouth with lips open and closed. Check the colors, textures and surfaces that are abnormal in the boundaries of the upper and lower lips. Labial Mucosa: a patient's mouth half open, the assessment performed on the labial mucosa and sulcus of vestibula maxillary and frenum and vestibular mandibular. Observe the color, texture, and the presence of abnormal swelling or other circumstances of the vestibular gingival and mucosa. The buccal mucosa: stretch the buccal mucosa. The value of the right side first and then the left side of the buccal mucosa is then shifted to the commissural labial anterior tonsillar fails and returns. Make a note of any changes of pigmentation, color, texture, mobility and other abnormal circumstances. It must be ensured that the komisura are not covered by the retractor when doing stretching from the cheek. The first carried out the examination of the buccal and labial gingival and bordering the alveolar gingival starts from the posterior maxillary alveolar and right on, then moves to the left around the corner of the posterior region. Proceed to the area posterior to the mandibular gingival and alveolar left and move around the corner of the right posterior.

Tongue: the tongue of the patient in a State of rest, and the mouth a little open in the State, observe the tongue dorsum part are encountered swelling, ulceration, membranes, or variations of size, color, or texture. Also given notes if there is a change in the shape of the surface of the tongue wraps papilla and do also checks the tip of the tongue. Then the patient is asked to stick his tongue out and carried out assessment of mobility and his position with the glass mouth, notice the area of the lateral edge of the right and left sides of the tongue. Hold the tip of the tongue with gauze and pulling the tongue out carefully and optimized, then do the inspection on the lateral edge of the posterior region of the tongue. The ventral surface of the examination then does. Palpation of the tongue to detect any abnormal state of things.

The base of the Mouth: the tongue is still in a State of raised, inspection of the ground state of the mouth with the notice a color change, texture, swelling, or other abnormal condition.

Palate: a mouth wide open in a State of patients and patient's head leaning forward, carefully press the base of the tongue with the glass mouth. First observe the ceiling hard then soft palate. Second, check your palate and lingual area as it has been done at the time of the inspection the face, starting from right to left of the palate (maxillary) and from left to right lingual (mandible). Perform checks on the whole palate and network oropharingeal. Palpation in bimanual basic areas of the mouth and the detection of the presence of the abnormal circumstances. The entire mucosal or facial tissue that seems abnormal must be dipalpasi.

Early Detection of Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity. It is very important to find cancers of the oral cavity as early as possible so that treatment can be done more successfully. Carcinoma of the oral cavity examination is conducted to find signs of cancer. Carcinoma of the oral cavity examination is painless and quick, just spend a few minutes. At the time of examination is the right opportunity to do an examination of Carcinoma of the oral cavity. Early detection of Carcinomas of the oral cavity is important due to the early detection can save lives. With the discovery of the oral cavity carcinoma in early and regular therapy, death due to carcinoma can be reduced drastically. As was mentioned above that the determination of the structure and cytology is the "Gold Standard" in finding the presence of abnormality in the oral cavity, then the role of Biopsy in early detection of a carcinoma of the oral cavity is very important, due to the ability of aspiration biopsy cytology in addition to distinguish benign tumor with malignant tumor, can also specify subtype in most tumors. Biopsy for the lesions-lesions on the oral cavity can be done in a way "Aspirasi Biospi Jarum Halus (SiBajah)" or by means of a biopsy using a Stiff-bristled Brush, a Punch Biopsy and also Pan Endoscopy. Do SiBajah very profitable from various aspects be it from the side of the patient and the clinical management, among others, the inspection is fast, simple, inexpensive, rapid diagnosis can prevent delays in treatment and also the opportunity find cancer as early as possible. In terms of clinical management action SiBajah greatly help clinicians in providing the treatment immediately and more accurate, for the surgeon can help in determining the schedule and choose the method of operation resulting in more effective and efficient.

Complications

Some of Leukoplakia is potentially to be Malignant. Dysplasia often appears as the best predictor of a potential for violence. As much as approximately 25% of leukoplakia on the first meeting is dysplastic.

Prognosis

Estimated incidence of violence varies from transformation of 3-33% over a period of 10 years. Chance of living 5 years in people with oral cancer that is localized is 81% compared to sufferers of metastatic cancer of the mouth that is already about 30% only. Preparation for early detection is started by communicating with patients concerning the use of tobacco or alcohol history; at once inform patients of the existence of a link between the use of tobacco and alcohol as a cancer risk factor the oral cavity. As much as approximately 30% of Leukoplakia may be regressive if bad habits are discontinued.

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Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Melanoma Malignant of the Oral Cavity

oral melanoma malignant

Oral Malignant Melanoma

Malignant Melanoma is actually rare in the oral cavity, only 1% of all melanoma. But the disease can be fatal. If had develop into advanced, malignancy or malignancy can be life threatening. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is helpful to prevent the disease is to travel a more severe level.

What Truly Malignant Melanoma?

Melanoma is a skin cancer, which occurs in the pigment-producing cells of the skin, namely melanocytes. Under normal circumstances, the melanocytes are on the outer layer of the skin and produce the brown pigment melanin that is. There is the most number of melanocytes in the skin of the face. But melanoma can also arise in the oral cavity, called Oral Melanoma.

Melanoma occurs when melanocytes divide uncontrollably and invade other tissues (attack). If not cared for rush, melanoma can grow enters the skin tissue that eventually reach the blood vessels and lymph vessels, and spread throughout the body (metastasis). That's when melanomas can lead to death.

How do the Characteristics of Oral Malignant Melanoma?

Oral Melanoma (melanoma arising in the oral cavity) can be seen as the pigmentation, without pain or symptoms (asymptomatic), the brown pigmentation usually dark or black at area of intraoral (inside the mouth). The lesions normally arise in solitary or unit, but never also reported multiple lesions.

An example of the case as found and handled by Mustafa Goregen from Ataturk University, Turkey. His patient's wearing full upper jaw dentures for 20 years. Behind the teeth produced an enlarged lesions arise quickly, solitary, and painless.

The most common place is palate and Mucosa (soft tissues) in the upper jaw. Melanoma may metastasize to the mandible, tongue, and the inside of the cheek.

Characters that should be suspected when Melanoma arises on the skin are:

Asymmetry

The lesions usually are not symmetrical, where one side is not the same size and shape than the other side. Unlike moles that have not experienced violence, usually round in shape and symmetrical.

The boundary is not clear/irregular

The lesions are usually not obvious with the surrounding skin is unbounded, or uneven edges.

Color

Melanoma usually does not arise in one color, but rather a composite of several colors in some parts. For example one side colored bluish or brownish, blackish-colored on the other.

Diameter

Normal moles are not enlarged; however the size of the melanoma continues to grow. Added the size usually runs quickly.

What Causes the Onset of Oral Melanoma?

Until now, the cause is not yet known for sure. But there are factors that are often associated with melanoma, which can occur in any part of the skin. In between excessive sun exposure or the presence of history often sunburned, especially from now on. The risk of melanoma can also be inherited from parents. White skinned people more at risk exposed to this violence. So are people with lots of moles, totaling 50 more in the body, are more at risk of suffering from melanoma.

But melanoma also occur on parts of the body are not exposed to the Sun such as the oral cavity. Oral melanoma reported related to mechanical trauma (as reported in the above case). Mechanical trauma can be caused due to ill-fitting dentures. It also reported the existence of a relationship between oral malignant melanoma with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and irritation because oral appliance to another. Benign moles that can also be transformed into maligna (malignant).

Examination of supporting what it takes to help the diagnosis?

Diagnostic imaging technique such as x-ray, CT-Scan, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan) can be done to

It also needs to be biopsied tissue, where suspected cancer tissue was taken for examination under a microscope. After the diagnosis needs to be upheld, determined the extent to which melanoma is already penetrations into the network.

The deeper melanoma may have regarding blood vessels and lymph glands. Therefore also need to do a biopsy on lymph glands adjacent to the lesion.

What Care of Can be done?

Oral Melanoma can be cured with surgery, and in certain cases also can be done with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. But of course the success rates are higher when the treatment is carried out at an early stage.

Carefully inspection by dermatologist or doctor tremendously helps teeth to check for the presence of oral melanoma and melanoma early. Beware of changes in the body and check with your doctor immediately.


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Saturday, September 8, 2018

What's a Melanoma Malignant Skin Cancer

melanoma malignant

DEFINITION OF MELANOMA

Melanoma maligna is a type of neoplasia which malignant stems from cells that may form melanin everywhere part of the skin or eyes. Also derived from mucus membranes in the pubic area; oral cavity. This disease usually occurs on the adults in de novo or pigmented lentigo maligna nevus. Other definitions of maligna melanoma IE skin malignant tumor originating from the system melanocytic of the skin (melanocytes) to the image be blackish lesions on the skin. Usually causes extensive metastasis in a short time, not only through the flow of lymph to the regional, but also spread through the bloodstream to the tools in, and can cause death. This is a type of cancer of the skin is the most violent and potentially deadly. In America, obtained data on six of the seven died of this cancer sufferer. And the number of people has stricken with increased from year to year. Melanoma Maligna can develop from moles arising out of existing or emerging.

ETIOLOGY

The cause is not known for sure. Can arise from normal skin (de novo) nevus pigmentosus or derived from (junction nevus), melatonin Hutchinson's freckles are pigmented, giant nevus, blue nevus. The cause of the occurrence of skin cancer there are two, namely the cause from within the body as well as from outside the body. Many factors are thought to play a role in the onset of maligna melanoma including genetic factors (existing at birth), Sunshine (maligna melanoma often is associated with the cause of the skin against the Sun's light. For example, the melanoma tumor usually grown men on the back as well as with women, tumors grow on the back of the leg), and also the cause of carcinogens, factor phenotypes (blond hair, blue eyes, light skin like the kneeing on the person bright skinned at the same time, someone who is bright skinned and less pigmented has a high risk of melanoma tumor gets maligna. Generally, melanoma effect on parents, but on any teenager presents to be found), and the presence of potential precursor against melanoma. Other risk factors include namely the Atypical Mole Syndrome, Large Nevi Congenital Melanocytes. Lentigo maligna melanoma family history and the history of positive malignant

EPIDEMIOLOGY

The disease is spread all over the world. Correlation of the incidence of melanoma is usually the opposite of the latitude, i.e. insidennya higher on the area near the Equator and is lower progressively on a region nearer the poles. The disease is rare before puberty, but can be of all ages. The highest incidence in the age of 35-55 years. It can be about the men and women with equal frequency, but morbiditasnya is higher in men.

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Early forms of very difficult to distinguish with the other tumors. Because melanoma is a fatal disease malignant when distant metastasis, then the ability to recognize early violence needs to be deepened. Localization in the lower extremities was reported, and then in the head/neck, body, extremities top, nails. The key invention malignant melanoma cure is early, so that a diagnosis of melanoma should be increased when the sufferers reported new pigmented lesions or moles that change, such as:
  1. Change in color
  2. Changes in size (especially rapid growth)
  3. The onset of the symptoms (itching, burning, or pain)
  4. Elevation occurred on previously flat lesions
  5. Changes on the surface of or changes in pigmented lesions consistency
  6. The development of satellite lesions

The American Academy of Dermatology stressed the importance of ABCD when evaluating any pigmented lesion, namely:
A = Asymmetry
B = Border irregularity
C = Color variegation
D = Diameter of more than 6 mm

The primary measure of melanoma malignant can be classified in four major types, namely:

1. Lentigo Melanoma Malign
LMM melanotic Hutchinson's also called precancerous freckles are or Dubreilh. Lentigo maligna lesions arise from who has been there before. LMM occupy approximately 5% of primary skin melanoma, primarily occurs in the elderly. Contrary to other melanoma, LMM substype on areas of the body that are exposed to sunlight, especially the face. Lentigo maligna lesions on the usually small colored patches of degeneration; dark brown; Brown or black. On the surface can be found the presence of pigmentation; spots scattered irregularly. The lesion extends vertically and along. Can develop into an invasive nodule blackish blue and somewhat hyperkeratosis

2. The Spreading Melanoma Malignant Surface
Generally arise from normal skin or nevus (de novo). It is the kind that is often encountered, which is about 70% of the entire melanoma malignant. More often found at a younger age compared to LMM, i.e. in the range 40-50 years. Lesions in the form of archiformis plaque measuring 0.5-3 cm long with its edges and along. On the surface there is a mixture of various colors like Brown, grey, blue, black, and often reddish, extends radials. In General after the lesion reaches the size of 1-2.5 cm, occur vertically growth phase and develop into nodules blackish blue. Predictions on the woman found in the lower limbs and backs, while in men the body and neck.

3. Nodular Melanoma Malignant
It can occur without radial growth phase preceded. So ABCD rule could not be applied to this subtype. Approximately 10-30% of cases of melanoma is a type of nodular. A place that often affected are the head, neck and body. The lesions are usually in the form of nodules that raises, Pigmented uniform. Its color ranges from dark brown to blackish-blue, or sometimes amelanotic.

4. Lentigo Maligna Melanoma Akral
Generally arising in normal skin (de novo). Is the type of the rarest (1%), but can be very violent due to the delay in diagnosis. Predictions on the soles of the feet and the hands, fingers and feet, the base of the nails, and mucous membrane. Lesions in the form of spots with pigment scattered with varying intensity. On the surface can arise papule, nodule, and can undergo ulceration.

Melanoma Histology

DIAGNOSIS

Cancer of the skin is different from other diseases, cancer of the skin or a skin disease can be seen directly with the eyes of the examiner. The methods of the examination can be done by anamnesis history of disease. And by the way did the mole surgically removed then observed under the microscope. From the mole surgically removed can be known of her type of cancer and stage of the cancer.

And can also be done with a laser diagnosis. Can capture three-dimensional images of the chemical changes and the structure that has been going on under the surface of human skin. See skin disorders are prominent on the size greater than 2.5 cm.

PATHOGENESIS

Normally, skin cells in the epidermis splits with regular and legs. New cells often reject the old cells to the outer surface of the skin where the old cells will die. This process is controlled by DNA. Skin cancer is valid because there is a disruption in this process in which the cell divides and forms a big growth.

COMPLICATIONS

Melanoma Malignant is a type of skin cancer which is the most malignant; it can spread to other bodies such as go to the lymphatic glands, causing hypertension, hypercholesterolemia.

THERAPY OR TREATMENT

The actions that are performed on patients with cancer melanoma maligna complete appointment this is the cancerous tissue with the surgery, has been known to occur when the spread of advanced operations needed to lift network the surroundings. For medicaments treatment with chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs) that are grouped into several categories: alkylating agents, plant alkaloids, anti metabolite, antitumor antibiotics, enzymes, hormones and biological response modifiers. And treatment in nonmedikomentosa includes radiotherapy, surgery and physical therapy.

Division of therapy based on the stage of melanoma:

Stadium Clinic I Melanoma Maligna
To date method of surgery with wide excision is still a way of melanoma treatment. Handling on the lesion type ALM requires special measures more than other types, namely:
  • For the lesion located at the base of the nail (subungual melanoma) and finger the distal part of the hands or feet, do disarticulation metakarpal or metatarsal.
  • For lesions located in the fingers or toe proximal part, performed an amputation karpometakarpal or tarsometatarsal
  • For lesions on the palms of the hands or feet (palmar or plantar melanoma), extensive excision is done with the boundary edges of the excision are tailored to the anatomy and functions

Determination of optimal excision border and consideration of adoption of regional lymph glands as a prophylactic actions, especially depending on the type and location of melanoma malignant, the degree of invasion of Clark and depth (thickness) Breslow.

Stadium Clinic II Melanoma Maligna
Wide excision accompanied the adoption of regional lymph glands.

Stadium Clinic III Melanoma Maligna
Systemic Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy the best traditional agents namely Dacarbazine Triazeno Imidazole Carboxamide Dimethyl/(DTIC). Can be given individually or combined with other systemic medications Chemotherapy. Response to treatment with DTIC occurs in 20-25% of sufferers. Systemic Chemotherapy recommended is:
DTIC: 200-300 mg/m2 (intravenous) for 5 days, repeated every 3-4 week.
Nitrosourea: 200 mg/m2 single dose (oral), repeated every 6 weeks.
Or a combination of DTIC and nitrosourea.

Immunotherapy
BCG is a non-specific active immunotherapy, primarily used for the melanoma treatment metastasis to hold a malignant skin. Given intraregional and provide sufficient influence is beneficial. The results are uncertain, depending on the immune system.

Lately done immunotherapy adoptive, using leukaferesis to get the lymphocytes of cancer patients, then the cells were incubated with interleukin-2, to form the killer cells that enable limfokin (LAK), and then the cells LAK is infused back with the granting of interleukin-2.

.

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Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Prevention of Skin Cancer Melanoma

Melanoma Prevention

Prevention of Skin Cancer Melanoma. The best prevention is to avoid direct exposure of the skin to sunlight for a long time. This is particularly important for people who once suffered from melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer more, to help prevent the reappearance of skin cancer that had already been lifted. Below are described some measures to prevent the skin from sun exposure.

Check the Condition of a Mole

Check your moles on your body if there are signs of melanoma. Consult physician if you see a change in form on the moles or spots on your body. If early diagnosis can be obtained, this will help in improving how the melanoma treatment works.

Avoid the Sun When at the Peak of the Hottest

At 10.00-14.00, Sun will be on top of the hottest. But at different times, the Sun can still feels very hot and has a damaging effect. During that hour, try to stay in the shade and covering yourself with the right clothes and wear sunscreen.

Dress Properly

If you are working outdoors and should be exposed to the Sun for long periods of time, use clothing that protects you from the Sun. Clothes that are meant here including long sleeve shirts, a hat to protect your face and scalp, and goggles to protect your eyes.

Use Sunscreen

It is recommended to wear a sunscreen with SPF (Sun-protective factors) of at least 15. Make sure the sunscreen suitable for your skin type and could obstruct the radiation ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB).

The use of sunscreen is recommended do 15 minutes before You are exposed to sunlight and smeared again every two hours. If you want to spend time in the water, use sunscreen that is water resistant and apply repeated regularly.

Before the activity outdoors during the day, make sure your children wear appropriate clothing and wear hats and sunscreen with a high SPF. Try looking for better protection of infants and children because their skin is more sensitive than the skin of adults. If too often exposed to sunlight, skin cancer can probably appear when they grow up.

Try to let the skin not burnt by the Sun. If it occurs frequently, the skin already affected by ultraviolet radiation. The possibility of the occurrence of cancer in the future will ride along the skin exposed to radiation.

Avoid Artificial Ultraviolet Light

Artificial ultraviolet light can be more dangerous than natural ultraviolet rays coming from the Sun. Because UV light radiation source using artificial ultraviolet light are concentrated. This UV light radiation can increase the risk of the development of melanoma maligna.


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Monday, September 3, 2018

How to Skin Cancer Melanoma Treatment

Melanoma Treatment

How to Skin Cancer Melanoma Treatment. Melanoma Treatment greatly depends on the individual's condition to be treated, the type of cancer and stage of cancer also suffered. The main handling in coping with melanoma is through surgery.

Skin Cancer Melanoma by Stage

Types of handling of melanoma depend on the stage of melanoma you suffered. System of the stadium used by professional medical personnel to explain how far the development and spread of melanoma in the skin as well as to other organs. Order stadium melanoma is described as below:

  • Stage 0; melanoma is on the surface of the skin.
  • Stage 1A; melanoma thickness less than 1 mm.
  • Stage 1B; melanoma thickness 1-2 mm or less than 1 mm but with damage or cuts on the skin's surface.
  • Stage 2A; melanoma thickness: 2-4 mm or 1-2 mm but with damage or cuts on the skin's surface.
  • Stage 2B; melanoma thickness over 4 mm or 2-4 mm with damaged skin surface.
  • Stage 2C; melanoma thickness over 4 mm and the surface of the skin is damaged.
  • Stage 3A; melanoma has already spread to one to three nearby lymph nodes, but the node does not swell. At this stage there is no damage to the skin and has not spread further.
  • Stage 3B; melanoma of the skin Surface has a natural damage and the melanoma has spread to one to three lymph nodes, but not enlarged. Alternatively, the surface of the skin undamaged and melanoma spread to one to three lymph nodes and node already engorged. Or the melanoma has already spread to the small area of the skin or lymphatic channels, but not to lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3C; melanoma skin surface damage and has already spread to one to three lymph nodes and enlarged. Or the melanoma spread to four or more lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4; melanoma cells have already spread to other parts of the body such as the lungs, brain, and other parts of the skin.

The following are the melanoma handling adapted to by stage:

Stage 1 Melanoma Skin Cancer

To treat melanoma Stadium 1, Plastic Surgeon will perform the surgery to remove the melanoma cells and a small portion of the skin in the surrounding area.

Sometimes in the process of surgery, for some cases of melanoma will be done for anesthesia, so you will be asleep or unconscious. But surgery for melanoma stage 1 is generally done by local for anesthesia. You will remain aware, however the area surrounding the melanoma will be numb and you will not feel pain.

If the surgery leaves scars inconspicuous, you could opt for the combined operation to graft skin. Skin grafting means taking some skin from other parts of the body, for grafted or affixed in the surgery.

Possibility to melanoma stage 1 who have been appointed will be back is very small, so it is usually not necessary for advanced handling after surgery.

Stage 2 and 3 Skin Cancer Melanoma

The handling is done the same way as in stage 1, i.e. the infected area melanoma will be appointed and if necessary surgery skin grafting. If the melanoma has already spread to the nearby lymph nodes, you may need further surgery to lift it. Total for anesthesia should be done for this operation.

The process of appointment of lymph nodes contains risks to your lymphatic system disorders. The effect can cause a build-up of fluid in the body. In medical terms this is known as limfedema. You still advisable to consult a physician about the recovery process and be aware of signs of melanoma will return.

Stage 4 Skin Cancer Melanoma

Stage 4 melanoma that the fallout could be divided into the following two conditions:

  • Melanoma has already spread to other parts of the body (metastases) when first diagnosed.
  • Melanoma appeared again in another part of your body after previous treatment.

In the above two conditions, most likely could not be healed. The handling is done only to slow the spread of cancer, reducing the symptoms being experienced, and prolong the lives of sufferers.

Surgery may be performed on a melanoma which appeared far from melanoma cells first appear. Whereas in order to reduce the effects of symptoms that occur, some handling can be done is radiotherapy and consumption of drugs.

The care and treatment that is done usually have side effects that could affect the quality of your life. If the results of the treatment does not add much age or you do not feel the symptoms that cause pain or discomfort, you might reject doing all the existing cancer treatments.

If you decide not to receive treatment, pain relief medication and special nurses might be provided if you need it. This is the type of palliative care. The entire decision is in your hands.

Radiotherapy

To remove lymph nodes after surgery and to relieve melanoma symptoms of stadium high, treatment of radiotherapy can be done. Radiotherapy beam radiation with a dose of applying controlled to kill cancer cells. This procedure is done in the hospital in a few sessions daily during 10-15 hours, with weekend will stay at rest.

Side effects of radiation therapy include fatigue, nausea, lost of appetite, hair loss, and rash-rash on the skin. Consult an experienced side effect to your doctor. The doctor can give you medicine to prevent or control the side effects. These side effects will be reduced little by little over live sessions that followed.

Drugs for Melanoma

Chemotherapy

Handling of melanoma that has already spread to other parts of the body is to use chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is generally done to relieve pain from symptoms of melanoma arising on the stadium. Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs consumption or cytotoxic to kill the cancer.

Some types of medications can be used to treat melanoma. A specialist will discuss drugs with you. There are many different types of chemotherapy, and drugs can sometimes be combined. The most commonly used to melanoma treatment is the dacarbazyne and temozolomyde.

Patients undergoing chemotherapy don't have to stay in hospital. Chemotherapy is administered once every three or four weeks. Pause time given aims so that your body has time to recover. Dacarbazyne is given via infusion and temozolomyde is given in tablet form.

Chemotherapy has some side effects that are caused by the influence of the drug against the resistance of the body. Most side effects can be prevented or controlled with medication prescribed by your doctor. The side effects of chemotherapy in whom infection, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and thrush.

Immunotherapy

Application of immunotherapy drugs that already wear comes from existing elements in the blood naturally. This treatment aims to encourage the immune system to fight melanoma. Two commonly used drug for melanoma is interferon-alpha and interleukin-2. Both of these drugs are given via an injection into the blood vessels under the skin, or into tufts of melanoma. The side effects that often occur from discharging immunotherapy resemble flu symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, and fatigue.

Monoclonal antibodies

The human body produces antibodies which serve to control the infection. In addition to the body, there are also antibodies can be produced in the laboratory, called monoclonal antibodies.

Sufferers will be given artificial antibodies in certain doses. Then these antibodies will recognize tumor cells and destroy it.

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Friday, August 31, 2018

Melanoma Malignant Skin Cancer Symptoms

Melanoma Maligna

Melanoma Maligna Skin Cancer Symptoms

Melanoma maligna symptoms are often characterized by the appearance of a new mole or when changing the shape of the moles that long. The form of the normal moles usually have one color, round or oval-shaped, and less than 6 millimeters in diameter. While melanoma typically has features:

  1. Have more than one color
  2. Irregular shape
  3. Diameter greater than 6 mm
  4. Itch and may bleed

With ABCDE list, we can distinguish normal moles with melanoma. List of ABCDE is:
  • A (asymmetrical) melanoma has the irregular form and could not be divided equally
  • B (border) melanoma has uneven edges and rough, unlike normal moles
  • C (colour) melanomas usually are a mix of two or three colors
  • D (diameter) melanoma usually diameter greater than 6 millimeters, and different from ordinary moles
  • E (enlargement or evolution) a mole that changes shape and size after some time will usually be melanoma

Melanoma maligna can grow in any part of the body, but some parts of the body that often affected are:
  • Face
  • Hand
  • The back
  • Leg

Please note, melanoma is not always starts from a mole. Because melanoma maligna may also appear on the skin that looks normal and are rarely exposed to ultraviolet light. Melanoma maligna can also occasionally appears under the nail, in the mouth, digestive tract, urinary tract, vagina, or on the part of the eye. Meet the doctor as soon as possible if you feel anxious with one of your moles.

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Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Beware Signs and Symptoms of Skin Cancer Melanoma

Cancer Melanoma

Check for signs and symptoms of skin cancer melanoma. Moles can actually be a sweetener a person's face, even sometimes associated with the character of a person according to its location.

But keep in mind, a Mole can develop into cancer. Moles cancer malignancy called Melanoma Maligna. In women, melanoma (moles) tends to appear on the arms and legs, whereas in men, there is a lot more at the back of the body. This disease can occur if there is a recurring irritant in a mole.

The International Cancer Research Agency has focused research on a mole that grows on the skin. An existing clinic in London has been using a tool to simplify detection of mole catching moles.

Recently, King's College London reported that there were at least 100 people who have melanoma are at risk of esophageal cancer. While in the United Kingdom, at least 1,500 people died of diseases of the skin and affected approximately 132,000 people affected by cases of melanoma each year.

Cancer Melanoma

For that, you need to look out for if a your mole showed symptoms of change that leads to malignancy. The symptom is as follows:

1. Its size gets larger
2. Color grow dark
3. Experiencing inflammation
4. Changing color as the spots
5. Bleed
6. Were open
7. Itching
8. Pain

When there is a sign above, you should immediately consult a doctor. Moles can be diagnosed by biopsy or analysis of a mole, that is, for examination in the laboratory to ensure there is cancer or not.

If the cancer has not spread, a Mole can be taken fairly mild through surgery. But if it's already spread; needed surgery and chemotherapy or radiation. Increasingly early changes into malignant moles, the higher the level of his recovery.

Now, some things can be done to prevent cancer in moles, namely:

First, avoid the skin exposed to the Sun from 10.00 until 16.00. If out of the House at this time, do not forget to use a sun protection cream (cream UV protection) to protect the skin from ultraviolet light or avoid adverse effects of the Sun.

Second, immediately check your moles to the dermatologist or surgeon if there are changes as above. Please note, the cancer on the mole rarely found on small children or blacks.

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