Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Melanoma Malignant of the Oral Cavity

oral melanoma malignant

Oral Malignant Melanoma

Malignant Melanoma is actually rare in the oral cavity, only 1% of all melanoma. But the disease can be fatal. If had develop into advanced, malignancy or malignancy can be life threatening. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is helpful to prevent the disease is to travel a more severe level.

What Truly Malignant Melanoma?

Melanoma is a skin cancer, which occurs in the pigment-producing cells of the skin, namely melanocytes. Under normal circumstances, the melanocytes are on the outer layer of the skin and produce the brown pigment melanin that is. There is the most number of melanocytes in the skin of the face. But melanoma can also arise in the oral cavity, called Oral Melanoma.

Melanoma occurs when melanocytes divide uncontrollably and invade other tissues (attack). If not cared for rush, melanoma can grow enters the skin tissue that eventually reach the blood vessels and lymph vessels, and spread throughout the body (metastasis). That's when melanomas can lead to death.

How do the Characteristics of Oral Malignant Melanoma?

Oral Melanoma (melanoma arising in the oral cavity) can be seen as the pigmentation, without pain or symptoms (asymptomatic), the brown pigmentation usually dark or black at area of intraoral (inside the mouth). The lesions normally arise in solitary or unit, but never also reported multiple lesions.

An example of the case as found and handled by Mustafa Goregen from Ataturk University, Turkey. His patient's wearing full upper jaw dentures for 20 years. Behind the teeth produced an enlarged lesions arise quickly, solitary, and painless.

The most common place is palate and Mucosa (soft tissues) in the upper jaw. Melanoma may metastasize to the mandible, tongue, and the inside of the cheek.

Characters that should be suspected when Melanoma arises on the skin are:

Asymmetry

The lesions usually are not symmetrical, where one side is not the same size and shape than the other side. Unlike moles that have not experienced violence, usually round in shape and symmetrical.

The boundary is not clear/irregular

The lesions are usually not obvious with the surrounding skin is unbounded, or uneven edges.

Color

Melanoma usually does not arise in one color, but rather a composite of several colors in some parts. For example one side colored bluish or brownish, blackish-colored on the other.

Diameter

Normal moles are not enlarged; however the size of the melanoma continues to grow. Added the size usually runs quickly.

What Causes the Onset of Oral Melanoma?

Until now, the cause is not yet known for sure. But there are factors that are often associated with melanoma, which can occur in any part of the skin. In between excessive sun exposure or the presence of history often sunburned, especially from now on. The risk of melanoma can also be inherited from parents. White skinned people more at risk exposed to this violence. So are people with lots of moles, totaling 50 more in the body, are more at risk of suffering from melanoma.

But melanoma also occur on parts of the body are not exposed to the Sun such as the oral cavity. Oral melanoma reported related to mechanical trauma (as reported in the above case). Mechanical trauma can be caused due to ill-fitting dentures. It also reported the existence of a relationship between oral malignant melanoma with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and irritation because oral appliance to another. Benign moles that can also be transformed into maligna (malignant).

Examination of supporting what it takes to help the diagnosis?

Diagnostic imaging technique such as x-ray, CT-Scan, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan) can be done to

It also needs to be biopsied tissue, where suspected cancer tissue was taken for examination under a microscope. After the diagnosis needs to be upheld, determined the extent to which melanoma is already penetrations into the network.

The deeper melanoma may have regarding blood vessels and lymph glands. Therefore also need to do a biopsy on lymph glands adjacent to the lesion.

What Care of Can be done?

Oral Melanoma can be cured with surgery, and in certain cases also can be done with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. But of course the success rates are higher when the treatment is carried out at an early stage.

Carefully inspection by dermatologist or doctor tremendously helps teeth to check for the presence of oral melanoma and melanoma early. Beware of changes in the body and check with your doctor immediately.


Read more

Saturday, September 8, 2018

What's a Melanoma Malignant Skin Cancer

melanoma malignant

DEFINITION OF MELANOMA

Melanoma maligna is a type of neoplasia which malignant stems from cells that may form melanin everywhere part of the skin or eyes. Also derived from mucus membranes in the pubic area; oral cavity. This disease usually occurs on the adults in de novo or pigmented lentigo maligna nevus. Other definitions of maligna melanoma IE skin malignant tumor originating from the system melanocytic of the skin (melanocytes) to the image be blackish lesions on the skin. Usually causes extensive metastasis in a short time, not only through the flow of lymph to the regional, but also spread through the bloodstream to the tools in, and can cause death. This is a type of cancer of the skin is the most violent and potentially deadly. In America, obtained data on six of the seven died of this cancer sufferer. And the number of people has stricken with increased from year to year. Melanoma Maligna can develop from moles arising out of existing or emerging.

ETIOLOGY

The cause is not known for sure. Can arise from normal skin (de novo) nevus pigmentosus or derived from (junction nevus), melatonin Hutchinson's freckles are pigmented, giant nevus, blue nevus. The cause of the occurrence of skin cancer there are two, namely the cause from within the body as well as from outside the body. Many factors are thought to play a role in the onset of maligna melanoma including genetic factors (existing at birth), Sunshine (maligna melanoma often is associated with the cause of the skin against the Sun's light. For example, the melanoma tumor usually grown men on the back as well as with women, tumors grow on the back of the leg), and also the cause of carcinogens, factor phenotypes (blond hair, blue eyes, light skin like the kneeing on the person bright skinned at the same time, someone who is bright skinned and less pigmented has a high risk of melanoma tumor gets maligna. Generally, melanoma effect on parents, but on any teenager presents to be found), and the presence of potential precursor against melanoma. Other risk factors include namely the Atypical Mole Syndrome, Large Nevi Congenital Melanocytes. Lentigo maligna melanoma family history and the history of positive malignant

EPIDEMIOLOGY

The disease is spread all over the world. Correlation of the incidence of melanoma is usually the opposite of the latitude, i.e. insidennya higher on the area near the Equator and is lower progressively on a region nearer the poles. The disease is rare before puberty, but can be of all ages. The highest incidence in the age of 35-55 years. It can be about the men and women with equal frequency, but morbiditasnya is higher in men.

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Early forms of very difficult to distinguish with the other tumors. Because melanoma is a fatal disease malignant when distant metastasis, then the ability to recognize early violence needs to be deepened. Localization in the lower extremities was reported, and then in the head/neck, body, extremities top, nails. The key invention malignant melanoma cure is early, so that a diagnosis of melanoma should be increased when the sufferers reported new pigmented lesions or moles that change, such as:
  1. Change in color
  2. Changes in size (especially rapid growth)
  3. The onset of the symptoms (itching, burning, or pain)
  4. Elevation occurred on previously flat lesions
  5. Changes on the surface of or changes in pigmented lesions consistency
  6. The development of satellite lesions

The American Academy of Dermatology stressed the importance of ABCD when evaluating any pigmented lesion, namely:
A = Asymmetry
B = Border irregularity
C = Color variegation
D = Diameter of more than 6 mm

The primary measure of melanoma malignant can be classified in four major types, namely:

1. Lentigo Melanoma Malign
LMM melanotic Hutchinson's also called precancerous freckles are or Dubreilh. Lentigo maligna lesions arise from who has been there before. LMM occupy approximately 5% of primary skin melanoma, primarily occurs in the elderly. Contrary to other melanoma, LMM substype on areas of the body that are exposed to sunlight, especially the face. Lentigo maligna lesions on the usually small colored patches of degeneration; dark brown; Brown or black. On the surface can be found the presence of pigmentation; spots scattered irregularly. The lesion extends vertically and along. Can develop into an invasive nodule blackish blue and somewhat hyperkeratosis

2. The Spreading Melanoma Malignant Surface
Generally arise from normal skin or nevus (de novo). It is the kind that is often encountered, which is about 70% of the entire melanoma malignant. More often found at a younger age compared to LMM, i.e. in the range 40-50 years. Lesions in the form of archiformis plaque measuring 0.5-3 cm long with its edges and along. On the surface there is a mixture of various colors like Brown, grey, blue, black, and often reddish, extends radials. In General after the lesion reaches the size of 1-2.5 cm, occur vertically growth phase and develop into nodules blackish blue. Predictions on the woman found in the lower limbs and backs, while in men the body and neck.

3. Nodular Melanoma Malignant
It can occur without radial growth phase preceded. So ABCD rule could not be applied to this subtype. Approximately 10-30% of cases of melanoma is a type of nodular. A place that often affected are the head, neck and body. The lesions are usually in the form of nodules that raises, Pigmented uniform. Its color ranges from dark brown to blackish-blue, or sometimes amelanotic.

4. Lentigo Maligna Melanoma Akral
Generally arising in normal skin (de novo). Is the type of the rarest (1%), but can be very violent due to the delay in diagnosis. Predictions on the soles of the feet and the hands, fingers and feet, the base of the nails, and mucous membrane. Lesions in the form of spots with pigment scattered with varying intensity. On the surface can arise papule, nodule, and can undergo ulceration.

Melanoma Histology

DIAGNOSIS

Cancer of the skin is different from other diseases, cancer of the skin or a skin disease can be seen directly with the eyes of the examiner. The methods of the examination can be done by anamnesis history of disease. And by the way did the mole surgically removed then observed under the microscope. From the mole surgically removed can be known of her type of cancer and stage of the cancer.

And can also be done with a laser diagnosis. Can capture three-dimensional images of the chemical changes and the structure that has been going on under the surface of human skin. See skin disorders are prominent on the size greater than 2.5 cm.

PATHOGENESIS

Normally, skin cells in the epidermis splits with regular and legs. New cells often reject the old cells to the outer surface of the skin where the old cells will die. This process is controlled by DNA. Skin cancer is valid because there is a disruption in this process in which the cell divides and forms a big growth.

COMPLICATIONS

Melanoma Malignant is a type of skin cancer which is the most malignant; it can spread to other bodies such as go to the lymphatic glands, causing hypertension, hypercholesterolemia.

THERAPY OR TREATMENT

The actions that are performed on patients with cancer melanoma maligna complete appointment this is the cancerous tissue with the surgery, has been known to occur when the spread of advanced operations needed to lift network the surroundings. For medicaments treatment with chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs) that are grouped into several categories: alkylating agents, plant alkaloids, anti metabolite, antitumor antibiotics, enzymes, hormones and biological response modifiers. And treatment in nonmedikomentosa includes radiotherapy, surgery and physical therapy.

Division of therapy based on the stage of melanoma:

Stadium Clinic I Melanoma Maligna
To date method of surgery with wide excision is still a way of melanoma treatment. Handling on the lesion type ALM requires special measures more than other types, namely:
  • For the lesion located at the base of the nail (subungual melanoma) and finger the distal part of the hands or feet, do disarticulation metakarpal or metatarsal.
  • For lesions located in the fingers or toe proximal part, performed an amputation karpometakarpal or tarsometatarsal
  • For lesions on the palms of the hands or feet (palmar or plantar melanoma), extensive excision is done with the boundary edges of the excision are tailored to the anatomy and functions

Determination of optimal excision border and consideration of adoption of regional lymph glands as a prophylactic actions, especially depending on the type and location of melanoma malignant, the degree of invasion of Clark and depth (thickness) Breslow.

Stadium Clinic II Melanoma Maligna
Wide excision accompanied the adoption of regional lymph glands.

Stadium Clinic III Melanoma Maligna
Systemic Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy the best traditional agents namely Dacarbazine Triazeno Imidazole Carboxamide Dimethyl/(DTIC). Can be given individually or combined with other systemic medications Chemotherapy. Response to treatment with DTIC occurs in 20-25% of sufferers. Systemic Chemotherapy recommended is:
DTIC: 200-300 mg/m2 (intravenous) for 5 days, repeated every 3-4 week.
Nitrosourea: 200 mg/m2 single dose (oral), repeated every 6 weeks.
Or a combination of DTIC and nitrosourea.

Immunotherapy
BCG is a non-specific active immunotherapy, primarily used for the melanoma treatment metastasis to hold a malignant skin. Given intraregional and provide sufficient influence is beneficial. The results are uncertain, depending on the immune system.

Lately done immunotherapy adoptive, using leukaferesis to get the lymphocytes of cancer patients, then the cells were incubated with interleukin-2, to form the killer cells that enable limfokin (LAK), and then the cells LAK is infused back with the granting of interleukin-2.

.

Read more

Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Prevention of Skin Cancer Melanoma

Melanoma Prevention

Prevention of Skin Cancer Melanoma. The best prevention is to avoid direct exposure of the skin to sunlight for a long time. This is particularly important for people who once suffered from melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer more, to help prevent the reappearance of skin cancer that had already been lifted. Below are described some measures to prevent the skin from sun exposure.

Check the Condition of a Mole

Check your moles on your body if there are signs of melanoma. Consult physician if you see a change in form on the moles or spots on your body. If early diagnosis can be obtained, this will help in improving how the melanoma treatment works.

Avoid the Sun When at the Peak of the Hottest

At 10.00-14.00, Sun will be on top of the hottest. But at different times, the Sun can still feels very hot and has a damaging effect. During that hour, try to stay in the shade and covering yourself with the right clothes and wear sunscreen.

Dress Properly

If you are working outdoors and should be exposed to the Sun for long periods of time, use clothing that protects you from the Sun. Clothes that are meant here including long sleeve shirts, a hat to protect your face and scalp, and goggles to protect your eyes.

Use Sunscreen

It is recommended to wear a sunscreen with SPF (Sun-protective factors) of at least 15. Make sure the sunscreen suitable for your skin type and could obstruct the radiation ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB).

The use of sunscreen is recommended do 15 minutes before You are exposed to sunlight and smeared again every two hours. If you want to spend time in the water, use sunscreen that is water resistant and apply repeated regularly.

Before the activity outdoors during the day, make sure your children wear appropriate clothing and wear hats and sunscreen with a high SPF. Try looking for better protection of infants and children because their skin is more sensitive than the skin of adults. If too often exposed to sunlight, skin cancer can probably appear when they grow up.

Try to let the skin not burnt by the Sun. If it occurs frequently, the skin already affected by ultraviolet radiation. The possibility of the occurrence of cancer in the future will ride along the skin exposed to radiation.

Avoid Artificial Ultraviolet Light

Artificial ultraviolet light can be more dangerous than natural ultraviolet rays coming from the Sun. Because UV light radiation source using artificial ultraviolet light are concentrated. This UV light radiation can increase the risk of the development of melanoma maligna.


Read more

Monday, September 3, 2018

How to Skin Cancer Melanoma Treatment

Melanoma Treatment

How to Skin Cancer Melanoma Treatment. Melanoma Treatment greatly depends on the individual's condition to be treated, the type of cancer and stage of cancer also suffered. The main handling in coping with melanoma is through surgery.

Skin Cancer Melanoma by Stage

Types of handling of melanoma depend on the stage of melanoma you suffered. System of the stadium used by professional medical personnel to explain how far the development and spread of melanoma in the skin as well as to other organs. Order stadium melanoma is described as below:

  • Stage 0; melanoma is on the surface of the skin.
  • Stage 1A; melanoma thickness less than 1 mm.
  • Stage 1B; melanoma thickness 1-2 mm or less than 1 mm but with damage or cuts on the skin's surface.
  • Stage 2A; melanoma thickness: 2-4 mm or 1-2 mm but with damage or cuts on the skin's surface.
  • Stage 2B; melanoma thickness over 4 mm or 2-4 mm with damaged skin surface.
  • Stage 2C; melanoma thickness over 4 mm and the surface of the skin is damaged.
  • Stage 3A; melanoma has already spread to one to three nearby lymph nodes, but the node does not swell. At this stage there is no damage to the skin and has not spread further.
  • Stage 3B; melanoma of the skin Surface has a natural damage and the melanoma has spread to one to three lymph nodes, but not enlarged. Alternatively, the surface of the skin undamaged and melanoma spread to one to three lymph nodes and node already engorged. Or the melanoma has already spread to the small area of the skin or lymphatic channels, but not to lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3C; melanoma skin surface damage and has already spread to one to three lymph nodes and enlarged. Or the melanoma spread to four or more lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4; melanoma cells have already spread to other parts of the body such as the lungs, brain, and other parts of the skin.

The following are the melanoma handling adapted to by stage:

Stage 1 Melanoma Skin Cancer

To treat melanoma Stadium 1, Plastic Surgeon will perform the surgery to remove the melanoma cells and a small portion of the skin in the surrounding area.

Sometimes in the process of surgery, for some cases of melanoma will be done for anesthesia, so you will be asleep or unconscious. But surgery for melanoma stage 1 is generally done by local for anesthesia. You will remain aware, however the area surrounding the melanoma will be numb and you will not feel pain.

If the surgery leaves scars inconspicuous, you could opt for the combined operation to graft skin. Skin grafting means taking some skin from other parts of the body, for grafted or affixed in the surgery.

Possibility to melanoma stage 1 who have been appointed will be back is very small, so it is usually not necessary for advanced handling after surgery.

Stage 2 and 3 Skin Cancer Melanoma

The handling is done the same way as in stage 1, i.e. the infected area melanoma will be appointed and if necessary surgery skin grafting. If the melanoma has already spread to the nearby lymph nodes, you may need further surgery to lift it. Total for anesthesia should be done for this operation.

The process of appointment of lymph nodes contains risks to your lymphatic system disorders. The effect can cause a build-up of fluid in the body. In medical terms this is known as limfedema. You still advisable to consult a physician about the recovery process and be aware of signs of melanoma will return.

Stage 4 Skin Cancer Melanoma

Stage 4 melanoma that the fallout could be divided into the following two conditions:

  • Melanoma has already spread to other parts of the body (metastases) when first diagnosed.
  • Melanoma appeared again in another part of your body after previous treatment.

In the above two conditions, most likely could not be healed. The handling is done only to slow the spread of cancer, reducing the symptoms being experienced, and prolong the lives of sufferers.

Surgery may be performed on a melanoma which appeared far from melanoma cells first appear. Whereas in order to reduce the effects of symptoms that occur, some handling can be done is radiotherapy and consumption of drugs.

The care and treatment that is done usually have side effects that could affect the quality of your life. If the results of the treatment does not add much age or you do not feel the symptoms that cause pain or discomfort, you might reject doing all the existing cancer treatments.

If you decide not to receive treatment, pain relief medication and special nurses might be provided if you need it. This is the type of palliative care. The entire decision is in your hands.

Radiotherapy

To remove lymph nodes after surgery and to relieve melanoma symptoms of stadium high, treatment of radiotherapy can be done. Radiotherapy beam radiation with a dose of applying controlled to kill cancer cells. This procedure is done in the hospital in a few sessions daily during 10-15 hours, with weekend will stay at rest.

Side effects of radiation therapy include fatigue, nausea, lost of appetite, hair loss, and rash-rash on the skin. Consult an experienced side effect to your doctor. The doctor can give you medicine to prevent or control the side effects. These side effects will be reduced little by little over live sessions that followed.

Drugs for Melanoma

Chemotherapy

Handling of melanoma that has already spread to other parts of the body is to use chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is generally done to relieve pain from symptoms of melanoma arising on the stadium. Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs consumption or cytotoxic to kill the cancer.

Some types of medications can be used to treat melanoma. A specialist will discuss drugs with you. There are many different types of chemotherapy, and drugs can sometimes be combined. The most commonly used to melanoma treatment is the dacarbazyne and temozolomyde.

Patients undergoing chemotherapy don't have to stay in hospital. Chemotherapy is administered once every three or four weeks. Pause time given aims so that your body has time to recover. Dacarbazyne is given via infusion and temozolomyde is given in tablet form.

Chemotherapy has some side effects that are caused by the influence of the drug against the resistance of the body. Most side effects can be prevented or controlled with medication prescribed by your doctor. The side effects of chemotherapy in whom infection, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and thrush.

Immunotherapy

Application of immunotherapy drugs that already wear comes from existing elements in the blood naturally. This treatment aims to encourage the immune system to fight melanoma. Two commonly used drug for melanoma is interferon-alpha and interleukin-2. Both of these drugs are given via an injection into the blood vessels under the skin, or into tufts of melanoma. The side effects that often occur from discharging immunotherapy resemble flu symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, and fatigue.

Monoclonal antibodies

The human body produces antibodies which serve to control the infection. In addition to the body, there are also antibodies can be produced in the laboratory, called monoclonal antibodies.

Sufferers will be given artificial antibodies in certain doses. Then these antibodies will recognize tumor cells and destroy it.

Read more

Friday, August 31, 2018

Melanoma Malignant Skin Cancer Symptoms

Melanoma Maligna

Melanoma Maligna Skin Cancer Symptoms

Melanoma maligna symptoms are often characterized by the appearance of a new mole or when changing the shape of the moles that long. The form of the normal moles usually have one color, round or oval-shaped, and less than 6 millimeters in diameter. While melanoma typically has features:

  1. Have more than one color
  2. Irregular shape
  3. Diameter greater than 6 mm
  4. Itch and may bleed

With ABCDE list, we can distinguish normal moles with melanoma. List of ABCDE is:
  • A (asymmetrical) melanoma has the irregular form and could not be divided equally
  • B (border) melanoma has uneven edges and rough, unlike normal moles
  • C (colour) melanomas usually are a mix of two or three colors
  • D (diameter) melanoma usually diameter greater than 6 millimeters, and different from ordinary moles
  • E (enlargement or evolution) a mole that changes shape and size after some time will usually be melanoma

Melanoma maligna can grow in any part of the body, but some parts of the body that often affected are:
  • Face
  • Hand
  • The back
  • Leg

Please note, melanoma is not always starts from a mole. Because melanoma maligna may also appear on the skin that looks normal and are rarely exposed to ultraviolet light. Melanoma maligna can also occasionally appears under the nail, in the mouth, digestive tract, urinary tract, vagina, or on the part of the eye. Meet the doctor as soon as possible if you feel anxious with one of your moles.

Read more